The Hindu Short Notes for Mains exam only
Topic- Iran oil temporary exemptions (GS-2) I.R.
- India is one of eight countries to receive temporary exemptions from U.S. sanctions on Iran
- U.S. will be granting these exemptions to China, India, Italy, Greece, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey.
- Each country on the list had demonstrated “significant reductions “ of the purchase of Iranian crude over the past six months,
- China and India, in that order, are the top two importers of Iranian oil
- Last year-India, which imports over 80% of its oil, sourced some 10% of Iran oil imports,
Background information for Fresher or beginner Only
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known commonly as Iran deal or Iran nuclear deal,
- Its an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna in 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
- Under the agreement, Iran agreed to eliminate its stockpile of medium-enriched uranium, cut its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 98%, and reduce by about two-thirds the number of its gas centrifuges for 13 years.
- For the next 15 years, Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3.67%. Iran also agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks.
- To monitor and verify Iran’s compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities.
- The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, Iran will receive relief from U.S., European Union, and United Nations Security Council nuclear-related economic sanctions.
- The JCPOA is not a bilateral deal between Iran and the U.S.; other parties are China, France, Germany, Russia, the U.K., and the EU. Further, the JCPOA was unanimously supported by the United Nations Security Council (Resolution 2231) enabling Security Council sanctions to be lifted.
Topic- India declares nuclear triad operational ( GS-3 Security)
- indigenous ballistic missile nuclear submarine INS Arihant achieved a milestone by conducting its first deterrence patrol.
- This means that Arihant is now prowling the deep seas carrying ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads.
- India’s stated position of ‘No-First-Use’ (NFU) in launching nuclear weapons,
- ship submersible ballistic nuclear (SSBN) is the most dependable platform for a second-strike.
- Because they are powered by nuclear reactors, these submarines can stay underwater indefinitely without the adversary detecting it.
Topic- New enemy of birds of prey: wind farms ( GS-1 or GS-3)
- a new super-predator in Maharashtra’s Chalkewadi plateau. With their constantly-whirring blades, wind turbines have decreased birds of prey here, finds a study published in Nature Ecology and Evolution
- Comparing raptor and lizard numbers in six areas with and without wind turbines, they found that wind farms had one-fourth the number of birds of prey (including eagles and kites) and showed lower predatory bird activity.
- It also proves, for the first time, that the ramifications of wind farms run much deeper across the food chain:
- The study is important for it shows that wind power projects — currently exempt from Environment Impact Assessments
Topic-Skin cancer deaths higher in men than women: study ( GS-1 or GS-2)
- Reasons for the discrepancy between sexes are unclear but evidence suggests men are “less likely to protect themselves from the sun
- More than 90% of melanoma cancers are caused by skin cell damage from exposure to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation such as tanning beds
- n eight of 18 countries examined, men’s skin cancer death rates increased over three decades by at least 50%.
- In two nations — Ireland and Croatia — it roughly doubled.
- Japan has by far the lowest melanoma mortality, for both men and women, at 0.24 and 0.18 per 100,000, respectively.
GS-2 (IR)Topic- Preserving the taboo
INF treaty basic
1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty required the United States + Soviet Union to eliminate and permanently forswear all of their nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 kilometers (USA withdraw from INF treaty now)
now come into editorials
- Existing nuclear arms control agreements need to be brought in line with today’s political realities
- range nuclear forces ( INF) treaty 1987
- bilateral treaty ..cannot restrict other nations to go ahead with this type of weapons
- INF does not represent reality of today multipolar nuclear amred world
- 2014 obama accused russia of violating INF treaty
- standalone approach is not possible for today
- INF cannot counter four countries outside it (India, Israel, North Korea and Pakistan) which have nuclear weapons,
- nor can it register any progress on nuclear disarmament.
It succeeded in delegitimizing nuclear proliferation but not nuclear weapons
- Note—-> editorials didnot answer about what would be the impact on china and india ( USA withdraw)
Topic- (RBI) vs govt issue (GS-3 Banking) In defence of Urjit Patel
Section 7 used first time in indian history (83 years)
1- RBI’s stringent restrictions on government-run banks non-performing assets (NPAs) have grown so much, so more risk boss –> less lending –>no more money in economic
2- friction is government’s insistence that the RBI go soft on power companies defaulting on loan repayments.
3- dispute is seigniorage, an eternal conflict..
- Finance Ministry wants the RBI to reset the formulae so that larger surpluses become free for transfer to the govt.
- RBI recent years passed on its surpluses in totality to the government, transferring nothing to its own reserves
- Overcoming the IAS lobby’s resistance, applicants who combined exposure to public-sector banking system with experience at prestigious global banks were included in the shortlist.
- In RBI mostly IAS working ( means again bureaucracy issue in RBI)
(GS-3 Banking) Topic- Wilful on defaulters?
- SC order –> disclose the names of willful defaulters
- bad loans are the main issue
- RBI new step–> step up digital public credit registry so that all name of willful defaulters for it
Topic- No respite from poverty for Muslims GS-1( Society) or GS-2 ( Education)
Government intervention is required to improve educational and economic indicators
Lowest education levels
- NSSO’s 68th round (2011-12) provides estimates of education
In urban areas, the number of male Muslim postgraduates is as low as 15 per 1,000.
- number of male graduates among Muslims is 71 per 1,000, less than even half the number of graduates (per 1,000) in other communities.
Around half the Muslim population over 15 years is either illiterate or has only primary or middle school education
- NSSO survey, the average per capita consumption expenditure (used as an indicator of income) among Muslims is just ₹32.66 per day, which is the least among all religious groups
- The course fee for upper primary education accounts for 8.5% of the yearly per capita spending for Muslims, followed by Hindus (7.4%), Christians (5.4%) and Sikhs (5.03%).
- To provide a special incentive and subsidy system for higher education.
- students must continue to higher levels of schooling and higher education.
- students who don’t wish to continue in general academic education must have access to vocational education from Class 9 onwards.
Below article only for freshers who doesnot know anything about INF Treaty ….
Decoding Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty
(INF Treaty) : 1987
- US President recently announced withdraw from the three-decade-old missile treaty with Russia.
The decision marks the end of an era of disarmament that India was so engaged with since its Independence.
- As one of the nine known nuclear-weapon powers, India has to adapt to the erosion of traditional methods of managing arms races. Geopolitical developments, emergence of new technologies and the declining domestic political support among the great powers are contributing to the demise of arms control.
- Implications of this withdrawal are important for Indian security — especially on the military balance with China, its traditional defence cooperation with Russia and the new possibilities for high-technology cooperation with the US, Europe and Japan.
The INF treaty
- The Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty concluded in 1987 by Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev.
- It has been hailed as one of the most important arms control agreements between both the countries.
- Under the INF treaty, the US and Soviet Union agreed not to develop, produce, possess or deploy any ground-based ballistic and cruise missiles that have a range between 500 and 5,500 km.
- It exempted the air-launched and sea-based missile systems in the same range.
- The agreement came in the wake of huge public outcry in Europe in the 1980s at the Russian deployment of the SS-20 ballistic missiles and the US response with Pershing-2 rockets.
- The INF treaty helped address the fears of an imminent nuclear war in Europe.
- It also built some trust between Washington and Moscow and contributed to the end of the Cold War.
Drawbacks of the treaty
- This bilateral treaty left the other nuclear weapon powers free to develop ground-based intermediate range forces.
- Since then, many countries have developed missiles in the range of 500 to 5,500 km, including India, Pakistan and North Korea.
- It is China that has dramatically expandedits missile arsenal in the last three decades.
- According to American officials, nearly 90 per cent of China’s vast missile armoury — estimated at around 2,000 rockets — is in the intermediate range and would be illegal if Beijing were to be a part of the INF treaty.
Reasons behind withdrawal
- Although the US cites Russian violationsof the INF treaty as the immediate cause for the withdrawal, coping with China’s massive rocket force appears to be the more important reason for the decision.
- According to US.’s national security adviser, even without the alleged Russian violations, the INF treaty was a bad idea since it left China and North Korea free to undermine the security of the US and its allies in Asia.
- The expansive Chinese land-based intermediate range missile forces threaten the American naval ships deployed in the Western Pacific and target US military bases in Japan.
- The vulnerability of American military presence in the Pacific to Chinese missiles, in turn, undermines the credibility of American security commitment to its Asian allies.
- The US military leadership has long sought to lift the limitations imposed by the INF treaty on US missile forces in Asia.
- In announcing the intent to withdraw, Trump said the only way to sustain the treaty is for Russia to stop the violations and China to join the INF treaty.
- Many arms control activists have long called for a genuinely universal INF treaty — that is all countries will give up intermediate range missiles.
- China has already rejected the proposition. It has always refused to join the US-Russian arms control agreements.
- If the US deploys a new INF in Asia, to enhance its capacity to deter China, Beijing is bound to react.
- The focus of a potential new arms race appears to be less on traditional nuclear armed missiles, but precise hypersonic missiles (which travel at least five times the speed of sound) equipped with conventional warheads.
- Moscow and Beijing have already invested in the development of hypersonic systems.
- India too will have little interest in joining a treaty that would take away its current nuclear deterrent in the form of medium-range Agni missiles. India’s problem is less with the arms control diplomacy than the nature of its missile programme. While it has no reason to shed tears for the INF treaty, it will have to seriously examine the implications of the next steps by the major powers.
- India has an effort underway on hypersonic missiles — part indigenous and part in collaboration with Russia to build on the supersonic Brahmos missiles that travel more than twice as fast as sound. As the US conflict with Russia deepens, India’s partnership with Russia on advanced military systems will come under increasing scrutiny and pressure.
The recent controversy over the acquisition of S-400 from Russia is just the beginning of a trend. Russia’s increasing military relations with China also casts a shadow over defence ties between India and Russia.
- India has to think long and hard about its missile programme by focusing on the urgent need to ramp up the domestic effort as well as diversify its international collaboration on hypersonic weapons.
- India needs a significant force of hypersonic missiles to better control escalation to the nuclear level if there is another Doklam-like military confrontation with China.
- Delhi will also have to cope with the inevitable proliferation of hypersonic systems in its neighbourhood.