Economy

SUMMARY OF YOJANA AUGUST 2018 -TOPIC-SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT

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DESIRE IAS

SUMMARY

OF YOJANA

AUGUST 2018

TOPIC-SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT

 

1 Topic-Let have a look in Editorial:

  • Empowerment—
  • Means having control over one’s life as an individual
  • Different connotation for different people:
  • Young- freedom regardless of social normsand customs
  • Aged- live life with dignity and self-respect
  • Male members- financial freedom
  • Female members- freedom from gender based discrimination
  • Poor and marginalised section- basic education, access to livelihood, opportunities for growth
  • Divyang- Technology development, accessible India
  • Tribal- right to theory very existence as an ethnic entity

2 Topic-Building inclusive society

  • Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes (Prevention Of atrocities Act )1989.
  • Enhancement of relief amount 85,000 to 8,25,000
  • Relief within seven days
  • Completion of investigation and filing of charge sheet within sixty days
  • Pradhan mantri Adarsh gram yojna- Development of major SC villages, Program is implemented in villages having population more than 50% of SC population.
  • Reservation in govt. post 4% à Divyang
  • Saksham Bharat sikshit Bharat
  • Scolarship scheme launched 1 nov 2014
  • Scholarship to divyang to pursue technical edu.
  • Amount 30,000
  • Rashtriya vayoshree yojna

E- uthaan

  • It is web portal 2017. For online capturing of data from various ministries and department on physical, financial outcome based monitoring indicators.

Dr. Ambedkar International Centre

  • Inaugurated at Janpath, New delhi.
  • Play a key role indissemination of Ambedkar’s ideas and vision
  • Function as think tank for inclusive growth
  • Article38
  • To secure a social order for promotion of welfare of people, which in keeping with guiding principle of this govt. in “Sabka Saath And Sabka Vikas”.
  • Growth opportunities for weaker section
  • Financial Inclusion And govt.–

National Scheduled Caste Finance and development cooperation (NSCFDC)

  • Financing, Facilitating and mobilising funds for economic empowerment of scheduled caste communities living below poveert line

National Scheduled Tribe Finance and development Cooperation (NSTFDC)

  • Company not for profit. To provide concessional financial assistance to STs for economic and social development.

Adivasi Mahila Shashakikaran yojna (AMSY) à Scheme for economic development of STs under which NSTFDC provide loan upto 90 % for project costing upto Rs 1 lakh at interest rate of 4%.

National Safaikaramchari Finance and development Cooperation

Company not for profit. Has authorised capital of 600 crore

National Backward class Finance and development Cooperation NBCFDC

National  Minority Finance and development Cooperation NMFC-

  • Preference to artisan and women

National Hnadicapped Finance and development Cooperation NHFDC –

  • Play a catalytic role in economic empowerment of Persons with disability PWDs

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)-

  • Autonomous organisation under ministry of women and Child development. Provide micro credit to poor women for various livelihood support. RMK extend micro-finance to poorest and asset less women entreprenuers through inter-mediary organisation (IMO) for income generating activities @ 6% SI

Mudra Yojna

  • Providing loan upto 10 lakh to non-corporate, non- farm small/micro- enterprise. Borrowers can apply online through Mudra Portal. Mudra has created three products ‘Shishu’ , ‘Kishore’ and ‘Tarun’.

Stand Up India Scheme-

  • Facilitates bank loan b/w Rs 10 lakh and 1 crore to at least one scheduled caste or scheduled tribe borrower at least one women borrower per bank branch for setting up a Greenfield Enterprise.
  • Money is to be disbursed via SIDBI.

Venture Capital Fund Scheme-

  • Launched by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • To promote entrepreneurship in India among SC by providing concessional finance to them.

Fostering entrepreneurship among marginalised-

  • Study conducted by Pratham for NITI ayog suggests “70% of respondents who come from semi-urban or rural areas aspire to become ‘self-employed’ entrepreneurs in stark contrast to urban counterparts’.
  • Country youth in rural areas gearing up for entrepreneurship to overcome poverty and employment.

Challenges and opportunities-

  • Lack of education and skill – major impediment among marginalized. It result in lack of confidence to undertake responsibilities.
  • Workshop, trainings and seminar can address these deficiencies. Strategic planning approach, guidance ad mentoring
  • Shortage of finance, fear of risk and lack of functional literacy are some of reasons that hold them back from starting their own enterprise.

Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Program (SVEP)-

  • To motivate rural youngsters to take up self-employment opportunities with help of state sponsored financial support. Sub-scheme under NRLM.

Social Empowerment for Differently Abled-

  • Persons with disability in india is 2.21% of total population.

Deen Dayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS)-

  • Financial assistance is provided to NGOs for projects relating to rehabilitation of PWDs
  • Important Initiative of govt. for welfare of tribals
  • Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (Recognition of forest rights), act, 2006
  • The scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (Recognition of forest rights ), act, 2006, was enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation of forest land in forest dwelling to scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers, who had been residing in these forests for generations, but whose –rights could not be recorded.
  • This act not only recognizes their rights to hold and live In the forest land, but also grants several other rights to ensure their control over forest resources like right of ownership , access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce, community rights; habitat rights for primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities; right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which they have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use.
  • Grants-in-aid under first proviso to article 275 (1) of constitution of India: this a 100% grant from govt of India, funding under this programme is to enable the state to meet the cost of such schemes of development as Amy be undertaken by the state for the purpose of promoting the welfare of scheduled tribes in that state or raising the level of administration of scheduled areas therein to that of the administration of the rest of the areas of that state. Funds are provided to states for various sectoral interventions

3 Topic-Empowerment of Women

  • Ministry of women and child development implementing various schemes:
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP)- to address declining Child sex ratio
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojna- providing cash incentives for improved health and nutrition to pregnant and nursing mothers.
  • Scheme for adlolecent Girls- Girls in the age of 11-18 to empower and improve their social status through nutrition, life skills, home skills and vocational training.
  • Pradhan Matri Mahila Shakti Kendra- promote community participation through involvement of student volunteers for empowerment of rural women.
  • National Crèche Scheme- to provide day care facilities to children age group of 6months to 6 years of working women who are employed.
  • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh- to provide micro-credit to poor women for various livelihood support and income generating activities at concessional term
  • Swadhar Greh- to provide relief and rehabilitation to destitute women and women in distress.
  • Ujjawala- for prevention of traffic and for rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Scheme of One Stop Centre (OSC) and Women Helpline(WH)- to facilitate access to medical aid, police assistances.
  • Gender Budgeting Scheme-   it helps in strengthening of institutional mechanism and training of various stake holders so as to main stream gender concern in central and state govts.

4 Topic-Living Life Of A Dignity

  • Country’s age profile is similar to greying Europe and silvering Japan.
  • Crowning expression of productivity among senior citizens is self-esteem- dignity.
  • What senior -citizen in india wants is not fame, money, or fortune but dignity.
  • Wall Street Journal declares “there is lot of gold in geriatrics”- a potential that remains largely unexplored in India by business

5 Topic-Panchayati Raj Institution

  • (Empowerment through Political Intervention)
  • Empowerment involves two important aspects: developing capabilities, negotiating skils and ability of people on one hand and obtaining authority to make decisions or participate in decision making on affairs that affect their lives on other.
  • To strengthen democracy, villages had to be strengthened because India is a country of village panchayats
  • Mahatma Gandhi strongly believed in Gram Swaraj. According to him, villages should be governed by themselves through elected panchayats to become self-sufficient. But surprisingly it was not added in the draft of the constitution. Due to Gandhi’s intervention it was included in Article 40 Of DPSP.
  • Balwant Rai Mehta Committee recommended “Only grass root level agency can establish a link between local leadership and local people”
  • By mid 1960s , Panchayati Raj had reached all parts of the country and people felt that there was a system which could attend to their issues at local level. However, within two years of its reach it failed to strengthen further.
  • PRIs functioned as govts agent rather than self-governing institution. According to Mathur, these institutions were not seen as institutions of people’s participation that played a role in deepening democracy, but rather seen as instruments to facilitate implementation of national policies.
  • PRI came into effect on 24th April, 1993.
  • It gave constitutional status to Panchayati Raj Institutions and it became mandatory to all state govt. to implement this act. PRI is perhaps the best transformation in democratic India to realise participation of ordinary people in power sharing.
  • There should be Gram Sabha Sabha in each village.
  • Landmark feature- In all panchayats, seats should be reserved for SCs and STs in proportion to their population and 1/3rd of total number of seats will be reserved for women.
  • Reservation of seats and offices of chairpersons for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in proportion to their population has potential to bring radical change in socio- political structure of the country.
  • At present only seventeen states are implementing 50% reservation to women at all level of PRI.
  • It is important planning approach regarding minimizing traditional feeling about SCs and STs in our society, particularly in terms of keeping them away from society.
  • Article 243D specifies mandatory rotation i.e structural constraints of reservation of seats among constituencies from one election to one another election.

6 Topic-India ‘s MMR now at 130

  • India achieved Millennium Development Goals targets 5.1 of ‘reducing Maternal Mortality Rate’ by three quarters.
  • MMR – 130/lakh live births earlier 167/lakh live births in 2011-2013.
  • MMR- number of maternal deaths from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management during pregnancy and child births or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy per thousand live births for a specified year.
  • MMR is a ratio and not a rate.
  • MMR has in the denominator, number of women in the reproductive age (14-45)
  • In % term UP/Uttarakhand, Kerala. MP/Chhattisgarh show decline in MMR that is greater than or equal to national avg of 22%.
  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakrama (JSSK)- ensures that every pregnant women delivering at govt. health centres get facilities like free drugs, free diagnostics, free diet, free delivery and caesarean section. Similar facility to all sick infants upto one year.
  • Pradhan Mantri Sukrashit Matritva Abhiyan- launched in 2016 to ensure quality antenatal care to pregnant women in the country on 9th of every month and til date more than 1.25 crore antenatal check-up have been conducted.
  • Our country is poised to achieve Sustainable Development Goals for maternal mortality before global target date of 2030

DISHA

  • Disha is an early intervention and school readiness scheme for children in the age group of 0-10 years with the four disabilities covered under the national trust act, under this act a trust-the national trust has been established for the welfare of persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities .
  • The national trust act aims at seating up disha centre for early intervention for persons with disability ( PwD) through therapies, trainings and providing support to family members.
  • Under this scheme, any organization of persons with disabilities, any organization of parents of persons with disabilities or a voluntary organization may register with national trust. There are known as Registered organizations
  • Over 2 lakh common service centers ( CSC) and 600 krishi vigyan kendras were connected through the video dialogue
  • Govt is working towards doubling the farmer’s income by 2022 and to provide farmers maximum price of their produce
  • Govt is committed the farmers should feel that from beej se bazaar (seed to market), how various initiatives helped the farmers to improve traditional farming

 

Four Social security schemes: these schemes are important for Prelims point of view ( old schemes but still relevant)

  • Atal Bima yojna
  • Pradhan mantri Jeevan jyoti  yojna
  • Pradhan mantri Suraksha Bima Yojna
  • Vaya Vandana Yojna
  • Rashtriya vayoshree yojna

 

(Team Desire IAS)