- Kautilya advises the king to promulgate dharma when the social order based on the varnas and ashramas (stages in life) collapses. He calls the king dharmapravartaka or promulgator of the social order Ashoka promulgated dharma and appointed officials to inculcate and enforce its essentials throughout India.
- The administrative mechanism was backed by an elaborate system of espionage. Various types of spies collected intelligence about foreign enemies and kept an eye on numerous officers.
- Important functionaries were called tirtha It appears that most functionaries were paid in cash, the highest among whom, the minister (mantrin), high priest (purohita), commander-inchief (senapati) and crown prince (yuvaraja), were paid generously.
- They received as much as 48,000 panas (pana was a silver coin equal to three-fourths of a tola). In sharp contrast to them, the lowest officers were given 60 panas in consolidated pay although some employees were paid as little as 10 or 20 pana