Spectrum Book- A Brief History of India ( Rajiv Ahir IPS)- How to Read it Step by Step

Spectrum Book- A Brief History of India – How to Read it Step by Step

The book is published by Spectrum and is quite freely available both in stores and online. If you live in Delhi, then pretty much all the shops in the Rajendra Nagar and Mukherjee Nagar will be selling it.

Other academic book stores might be selling it, but since it is generally in high demand, you will be taking chances.

Our Prelims Analyze

For prelims, you can answer 90% of History questions if you Read and reread summery given in every chapter and Index’s given in the Book.

Note- Read it from cover to cover at least 5 to 8 time before prelims.

Our Mains Analyze

From 2018 Mains, we can answer all questions except one.

If you analyze the number of question being asked in Mains is 3 to 5 , For these 3 to 4 questions, you need not put your energy in reading History.

Our Suggestions

  • We just wanna acquaint you with the fact that you have to study like Competitor not like Scholar.
  • you can read it offline by purchasing in offer.
  • Try to follow Recall, Re-Think Process.

For More Info 

How to Read this bulky Spectrum Book ( Latest Edition 2018)  in a smart way, Step by Step ..try to watch our video- link Click Me

Best of Luck

(Team Desire IAS)




ENGLISH LITERATURE OPTIONAL UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a first-hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Leterature : Paper I : 1600-1900 and Paper II : 1900-1990.

There will be two compulsory questions in each paper : a) A short-notes question related to the topics for general study, and b) A critical analysis of UNSEEN passages both in prose and verse.

Paper-I

Answers must be written in English.

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

The Renaissance : Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic; Neo-classicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.

Section-A

1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.

2. John Donne. The following poems :

– Canonization;

– Death be not proud;

– The Good Morrow;

– On his Mistress going to bed;

– The Relic;

3. John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX

4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.

5. William Wordsworth. The following poems:

– Ode on Intimations of Immortality.

– Tintern Abbey.

– Three years she grew.

– She dwelt among untrodden ways.

– Michael.

– Resolution and Independence.

– The World is too much with us.

– Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour.

– Upon Westminster Bridge.

6. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam.

7. Henrik Ibsen : A Doll’s House.

Section-B

1. Jonathan Swift. Gulliver’s Travels.

2. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.

3. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.

4. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.

5. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.

6. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.

7. Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Paper-II

Answers must be written in English.

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream-of-consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post-Colonialism; Indian Writing in English; Marxist, Psychoanalytical and Feminist approaches to literature; Post-Modernism.

Section-A

1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems:

– Easter 1916

– The Second Coming

– A Prayer for my daughter.

– Sailing to Byzantium.

– The Tower.

– Among School Children.

– Leda and the Swan.

– Meru

– Lapis Lazuli

2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems :

– The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock

– Journey of the Magi.

– Burnt Norton.

3. W.H. Auden. The following poems :

– Partition

– Musee des Beaux Arts

– in Memory of W.B. Yeats

– Lay your sleeping head, my love

– The Unknown Citizen

– Consider

– Mundus Et Infans

– The Shield of Achilles

– September 1, 1939

– Petition.

4. John Osborne : Look Back in Anger.

5. Samuel Beckett. Waiting for Godot.

6. Philip Larkin. The following poems :

– Next

– Please

– Deceptions

– Afternoons

– Days

– Mr. Bleaney

7. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems :

– Looking for a Causim on a Swing

– A River

– Of Mothers, among other Things

– Love Poem for a Wife 1

– Samll-Scale Reflections on a Great House

– Obituary

(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).

Section-B

1. Joseph Conrad. Lord Jim

2. James Joyce. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

3. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.

4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.

5. Virginia Woolf. Mrs Dalloway.

6. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.

7. V.S. Naipal. A House for Mr. Biswas.




URDU LITERATURE OPTIONAL SYLLABUS FOR MAINS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Urdu.
Section-A
Development of Urdu Language
a) Development of Indo-Aryan
(i) Old Indo-Aryan
(ii) Middle Indo Aryan
(iii) New Indo Aryan

b) Western Hindi and its dialects Brij Bhasha Khadi Boli, Haryanavi Kannauji, Bundeli-Theories about the origin of Urdu Language

c) Dakhani Urdu-Origin and development, its significant linguistic features.

d) Social and Cultural roots of Urdu language and its distinctive features.
Script, Phonology, Morphology, Vocabulary.

Section-B

a) Genres and their development :
(i) Poetry : Ghazal, Masnavi, Qasida, Marsia, Rubai, Jadid Nazm,
(ii) Prose : Novel, Short Story, Dastan, Drama, Inshaiya, Khutoot, Biography.

b) Significant features of :
(i) Deccani, Delhi and Lucknow schools
(ii) Sir Syed movement, Romantic movement, Progressive movement, Modernism.

c) Literary Criticism and its development with reference to Hali, Shibli, Kaleemuddin Ahmad, Ehtisham Hussain, Ale-Ahmad Suroor.

d) Essay writing (covering literary and imaginative topics)

  Paper-II
Answers must be written in Urdu.
This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.

Section-A

1. Mir Amman Bagho-Babar
2. Ghalib Intikhab-e-Khutoot-e Ghalib
3. Mohd. Husain Nairang-e-Khayal Azad
4. Prem Chand Godan
5. Rajendra Singh Apne Dukh Mujhe Bedi Dedo
6. Abul Kalam Azad Ghubar-e-Khatir

Section-B
1. Mir Intikhab-e-Kalam-e-Mir(Ed. Abdul Haq.)
2. Mir Hasan Sahrul Bayan
3. Ghalib Diwan-e-Ghalib
4. Iqbal Bal-e-Jibrail
5. Firaq Gul-e-Naghma
6. Faiz Dast-e-Saba
7. Akhtruliman Bint-e-Lamhat




TELUGU LITERATURE OPTIONAL LITERATURE SYLLABUS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Telugu.
Section-A
Language
1. Place of Telugu among Dravidian languages and its antiquity-Etymological history of Telugu, Tenugu and Andhra.
2. Major linguistic changes in phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactical levels, from Proto-Dravidian to old Telugu and from old Telugu to Modern Telugu.

3. Evolution of spoken Telugu when compared to classical Telugu-Formal and functional view of Telugu language.
4. Influence of other languages and its impact on Telugu.
5. Modernization of Telugu language.
(a) Linguistic and literary movements and their role in modernization of Telugu.
(b) Role of media in modernization of Telugu (Newspapers, Radio, TV etc.)
(c) Problems of terminology and mechanisms in coining new terms in Telugu in various discourses including scientific and technical.

6. Dialects of Telugu-Regional and social variations and problems of standardization.
7. Syntax-Major divisions of Telugu sentences-simple, complex and compound sentences-Noun and verb predications-Processes of nominlization and relativization-Direct and indirect reporting-conversion processes.
8. Translation-Problems of translation, cultural, social and idiomatic-Methods of translation-Approaches to translation-Literary and other kinds of translation-various uses of translation.

Section-B
Literature
1. Literature in Pre-Nannaya Period-Marga and Desi poetry.
2. Nannaya Period-Historical and literary background of Andhra Mahabharata.
3. Saiva poets and their contribution-Dwipada, Sataka, Ragada, Udaharana.
4. Tikkana and his place in Telugu literature.
5. Errana and his literary works-Nachana Somana and his new approach to poetry.
6. Srinatha and Potana-Their woks and contribution.
7. Bhakti poets in Telugu literature-Tallapaka Annamayya, Ramadasu, Tyagayya.
8. Evolution of prabandhas-Kavya and prabandha.
9. Southern school of Telugu literature-Raghunatha Nayaka, Chemakura Vankatakavi and women poets-Literary forms like yakshagana, prose and padakavita.
10. Modern Telugu Literature and literary forms-Novel, Short Story, Drama, Playlet and poetic forms.
11. Literary Movements : Reformation, Nationalism, Neo-classicism, Romanticism and Progressive, Revolutionary movements.
12. Digambarakavulu, Feminist and Dalit Literature.
13. Main divisions of folk literature-Performing folk arts.

Paper-II
Answers must be written in Telugu.
This paper will require first hand reading of the prescribed texts and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability, which will be in relation to the following approaches.
i) Aesthetic approach-Rasa, Dhwani, Vakroti and Auchitya-Formal and Structural-Imagery and Symbolism.
ii) Sociological, Historical, Ideological, Psychological approaches.

Section-A
1. Nannaya-Dushyanta Charitra (Adiparva 4th Canto verses 5-109)
2. Tikkana-Sri Krishna Rayabaramu (Udyoga parva -3rd Canto verses 1-144)
3. Srinatha-Guna Nidhi Katha (Kasi-khandam, 4th Canto, verses 76-133)
4. Pingali Surana-Sugatri Salinulakatha (Kalapurnodayamu 4 Canto verses, 60-142)
5. Molla-Ramayanamu (Balakanda including avatarika)
6. Kasula Purushothama Kavi-Andhra Nayaka Satakamu

Section-B
7. Gurajada Appa Rao-Animutyalu (Short stories)
8. Viswanatha Satyanarayana-Andhra prasasti
9. Devulapalli Krishna Sastry-Krishnapaksham (excluding Urvasi and Pravasam)
10. Sri Sri-Maha prastanam.
11. Jashuva-Gabbilam (Part I)
12. C. Narayana Reddy-Karpuravasanta rayalu.
13. Kanuparti Varalakshmamma-Sarada lekhalu (Part I)
14. Atreya-N.G.O.
15. Racha konda Visswanatha Sastry-Alpajaeevi.




TAMIL LITERATURE OPTIONAL UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Tamil.
Section: A

Part: 1 History of Tamil Language
Major Indian Language Families-The place of Tamil among Indian languages in general and Dravidian in particular-Enumeration and Distributionof Dravidian languages.

The language of Sangam literature-The language of medieval Tamil: Pallava period only-Historical study of Nouns, Verbs, adjectives, adverbs Tense markers and case markers in Tamil.
Borrowing of words from other languages into Tamil-Regional and social dialects-difference between literary and spoken Tamil.

Part: 2 History of Tamil Literature
Tolkappiyam-Sangam Literatue-The division of Akam and puram-The secular characteristics of Sangam Literature-The development of Ethical
literature-Silappadikaram and Manimekalai.

Part: 3 
Devotional literature (Alwars and Nayanmars) The bridal mysticism in Alwar hymns-Minor literary forms (Tutu, Ula, Parani, Kuravanji)
Social factors for the development of Modern Tamil literature: Novel, Short story and New Poetry-The impact of various political ideologies on modern writings.

Section:B
Part:1
Recent trends in Tamil Studies

Approaches to criticism: Social , psychologiocal, hostorical and moralistic-the use of criticism-the various techniques in literature: Ullurai, Iraicchi, Thonmam (Myth) Otturuvagam (allegory), Angadam (Satire), Meyppadu, Padimam(image), Kuriyeedu (Symbol), Irunmai (ambiguity)-The concep[t of comparative literature-the principle of comparative literature.

Part: 2
Folk literature in Tamil:Ballads, Songs, proverbs and riddles-Sociological study of Tamil folklore. Uses of translation-Translation of Tamil works into other languages-Development of journalism in Tamil.

Part: 3
Cultural Heritage of the Tamils

Concept of Love and War-Concept of Aram-the ethical codes adopted by the ancient Tamils in their warfare-customs, beliefs, rituals, modes of worship in the five Thinais. The cultural changes as revealed in post sangam literature-cultural fusion in the medieval period (Jainism & Buddhism). The development of arts and architecture through the ages (Pallavas, later cholas, and Nayaks). The impact of various political, social, religious and cultural movements on Tamil Society. The role of mass media in the cultural change of contemporary Tamill society.

                                                                   Paper-II
Answers must be written in Tamil.
The paper will require first hand reading of the Text prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidate.

Section-: A
Part: 1 Ancient Literature
(1) Kuruntokai (1-25 poems)
(2) Purananurui (182-200 poems)
(3) Tirukkural Porutpal : Arasiyalum Amaichiyalum (from Iraimatchi to Avaianjamai)

Part : 2 Epic Literature
(1) Silappadikaram: Madhurai Kandam only.
(2) Kambaramayanam: Kumbakarunan Vadhai Padalam

Part 3: Devotional Literature
(1) Tiruvasagam: Neetthal Vinnappam
(2) Tiruppavai: (Full Text)

Section-: B

Modern Literature
Part:1 Poetry
(1) Bharathiar: Kannan Pattu
(2) Bharathidasan: Kudumba Vilakku
(3) Naa. Kamarasan: Karuppu Malarkal

Prose
(1) Mu. Varadharajanar. Aramum Arasiyalum
(2) C N Annadurai: Ye! Thazhntha Tamilagame.

Part : 2
Novel, Short story and Drama

(1) Akilon: Chittirappavai
(2) Jayakanthan: Gurupeedam
(3) Cho: Yarukkum Vetkamillai

Part: 3
F
olk Literature
(1) Muthuppattan Kathai Edited by Na. Vanamamalai, (Publication: Madurai Kamaraj University)
(2) Malaiyaruvi, Edited by Ki. Va Jagannathan (Publication: Saraswathi, Mahal, Thanjavur)




SANSKRIT LITERATURE OPTIONAL UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

Paper-I

There will be three questions  as indicated in the question paper which must be answered in Sanskrit. The remaining questions must be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate.

Section-A
1. Significant features of the grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, Sandhi, Karaka, Samasa, Kartari and Karmani vacyas (voice usages) (to be answered in Sanskrit).

2.
(a) Main characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit language.
(b) Prominent features of classical Sanskrit language.
(c) Contribution of Sanskrit to linguistic studies.

3. General Knowledge of:-
(a) Literary history of Sanskit,
(b) Principal trends of literary criticism
(c) Ramayana,
(d) Mahabharata
(e) The origin and development of literary geners of:
Mahakavya Rupaka (drama) Katha Akhyayika Campu Khandakavya Muktaka Kavya.

Section-B
4. Essentials of Indian Culture with stress on
a) Purusarthas-
b) Samskaras-
c) Varnasramavyavastha
d) Arts and fine arts
e) Technical sciences

5. Trends of Indian Philosophy
a) Mimansa
b) Vedanta
c) Nyaya
d) Vaisesika
e) Sankhya
f) Yoga
g) Bauddha
h) Jaina
j) Carvaka

6. Short Essay in Sanskrit

7. Unseen passage with the questions, to be answered in Sanskrit.

Paper-II

Question from Group 4 is to be answered in Sanskrit only. Question from Groups 1, 2 and 3 are to be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium opted by the candidate.

Section-A

General study of the following groups:-
Group 1 
a) Raghuvamsam-Kalidasa
b) Kumarasambhavam-Kalidasa
c) Kiratarjuniyam-Bharavi
d) Sisupalavadham-Magha
e) Naisadhiyacaritam-Sriharsa
f) Kadambari-Banabhatta
g) Dasakumaracaritam -Dandin
h) Sivarajyodayam-S.B. Varnekar

Group 2 
a) Isavasyopanisad
b) Bhagavadgita
c) Sundarakanda of Valmiki’s Ramayana
d) Arthasastra of Kautilya

Group 3 

a) Svapnavasavadattam- Bhasa
b) Abhijnanasakuntalam- Kalidasa
c) Mrcchakatikam-Sudraka
d) Mudraraksasam-Visakhadatta
e) Uttararamacaritam- Bhavabhuti
f) Ratnavali-Sriharshavardhana
g) Venisamharam- Bhattanarayana

Group 4 
Short notes in Sanskrit on the following:-
a) Meghadutam-Kalidasa
b) Nitisatakam-Bhartrhari
c) Panchtantra-
d) Rajatarangini-Kalhana
e) Harsacaritam-Banabhatta
f) Amarukasatakam-Amaruka
g) Gitagovindam-Jayadeva

Section-B

Questions from Groups 1 & 2 are to be answered in Sanskrit only. (Questions from Groups 3 & 4 are to be answered in Sanskrit or in the medium opted by the candidate).

This Section will require first hand reading of the following selected texts :-
Group 1 
(a) Raghuvansam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10
(b) Kumarasambhavam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10
(c) Kiratarjuniyam-Canto I, Verses 1 to 10

Group 2 
(a) Isavasyopanisad-verses-1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15 and 18

(b) Bhagavatgita II chapter verses 13 to 25

(c) Sundarakandam of Valmiki Canto 15, Verses 15 to 30 (Geeta Press Edition)

Group 3 
(a) Meghadutam-verses 1 to 10

(b) Nitisatakam-Verses 1 to 10 (Edited by D.D. Kosambi Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Publication)

(c) Kadambari-Sukanasopadesa (only)

Group 4 
(a) Svapnavasavadattam Act VI

(b) Abhijnansakuntalam Act IV verses 15 to 30 (M.R. Kale Edition)

(c) Uttararamacaritam Act 1 verses 31 to 47 (M.R. Kale Edition)




SINDHI LITERAURE OPTIONAL MAINS SYLLABUS

 Paper-I

Answers must be written in Sindhi (Arabic or Devanagari script).
Section-A

1. (a) Origin and evolution of Sindhi language-views of different scholars.
(b) Significant linguistic features of Sindhi language, including those pertaining to its phonology, morphology and syntax.
(c) Major dialects of the Sindhi language.
(d) Sindhi vocabularly-stages of its growth, including those in the pre-partition and post-partition periods.
(e) Historical study of various Writing Systems (Scripts) of Sindhi.
(f) Changes in the structure of Sindhi language in India, after partition, due to influence of other languages and social conditions.

Section-B
2. Sindhi literature through the ages in context of socio-cultural conditions in the respective periods :
a. Early medieval literature upto 1350 A.D. including folk literature.
b. Late medicval period from 1350 A.D. to 1850 A.D.
c. Renaissance period from 1850 A.D. to 1947 A.D.
d. Modern period from 1947 and onwards.

(Literary genres in Modern Sindhi literature and experiments in poetry, drama, novel, short story, essay, literary criticism, biography, autobiography, memoirs, and travelogues.)

  Paper-II
Answers must be written in Sindhi (Arabic of Devanagari script).
This paper will require the first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidates’ critical ability.

Section-A
References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.
(1) Poetry
a. “Shah Jo Choond Shair” : ed. H.I. Sadarangani, Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
b. “Sachal Jo Choond Kalam” : ed. Kalyan B. Advani Published by Sahitya Akademi (Kafis only)
c. “Sami-a-ja Choond Sloka” : ed. B.H. Nagrani Published by Sahitya Akademi (First 100 pages)
d. “Shair-e-Bewas” : by Kishinchand Bewas (“Saamoondi Sipoon” portion only)
e. “Roshan Chhanvro” : Narayan Shyam
f. “Virhange Khanpoije Sindhi Shair jee Choond” : ed. H.I. Sadarangani Published by Sahitya Akademi

(2) Drama
g. “Behtareen Sindhi Natak” (One-act Plays) : Edited by M. Kamal Published by Gujarat Sindhi Academy.
h. “Kako Kaloomal” (Full-length Play) : by Madan Jumani

Section-B
References to context and critical appreciation of the texts included in this section.
a. ‘Pakheeara Valar Khan Vichhrya’ (Novel) : by Gobind Malhi
b. ‘Sat Deenhan’ (Novel) : by Krishan Khatwani
c. ‘Choond Sindhi Kahanyoon’ (Short Stories) Vol. III. : Edited by Prem Prakash, Published by Sahitya Akademi.
d. ‘Bandhan’ (Short Stories) : Sundari Uttamchandani
e. ‘Behtareen Sindhi Mazmoon’ (Essays) : Edited by Hiro Thakur, published by Gujarat Sindhi Akademi.
f. ‘Sindhi Tanqeed’ (Criticism) : Edited by Harish Vaswani : Published by Sahitya Akademi.
g. ‘Mumhinjee Hayati-aja Sona Ropa varqa’ (Autobiography) : by Popati Hiranandani
h. “Dr. Choithram Gidwani” (Biography) : by Vishnu Sharma




PUNJABI LITERATURE (OPTIONAL) UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi Script.
Section-A

a) Origin of Punjabi language : different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language : characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones: classification of vowels and consonants.

b) Punjabi morphology : the number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes and different categories of Post positions: Punjabi word formation: Tatsam. Tad Bhav, forms: Sentence structure, the notion of subject and object in Punjabi: Noun and verb phrases.

c) Language and dialect; the notions of dialect and idiolect; major dialects of Punjabi; Pothohari, Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification, the distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones. Language and script; origin and development of Gurmukhi; suitability of Gurmukhi for Punjabi.

d) Classical background; Nath Jogi Sahit
Medieval literature : Gurmat, Sufti, Kissa and Var Janamsakhis.

Section-B

a) Modern trends Mystic, romantic, progressive and neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J.S. Neki).
Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal)
Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh)
Neo-progressive (Pash. Jagtar, Patar)
Origin and Development of Genres :

b) Folk literature Folk songs, Folk tales. Riddles, Proverbs.
Epic (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh, Azad Mohan Singh)
Lyric (Gurus, Sufis and Modern Lyricists-Mohan Singh Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar, Harbhajan Singh)

c) Drama (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S.Sekhon, Charan Das Sidhu)
Novel (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, K.S. Duggal, Sukhbir, Gurdial Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Swaran Chandan)
Short Story (Sujan Singh, K.S. Virk. Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu).

d) Socio-cultural   Sanskrit, Persian Literary influences and Western.
Essay (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh)
Literary Criticism (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, Najam Hussain Sayyad).

   Paper-II

Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi Script.
This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designedto test the candidate’s critical ability.
Section-A
a) Sheikh Farid The complete Bani as included in the Adi Granth.
b) Guru Nanak Japu Ji Baramah, Asa di Var
c) Bulleh Shah Kafian
d) Waris Shah Heer

Section-B
a) Shah Mohammad Jangnama (Jang Singhan te Firangian)
Dhani Ram Chatrik (Poet) Chandan Vari
Sufi Khana
Nawan Jahan

b) Nanak Singh (Novelist) Chitta Lahu
Pavittar Papi
Ek Mian Do Talwaran

c) Gurbaksh Singh (Essayist) Zindagi di Ras Nawan Shivala Merian Abhul Yadaan.
Balraj Sahni (Travelogue) Mera Roosi Safarnama
Mera Pakistani Safarnama

d) Balwant Gargi (Dramatist) Loha Kutt
Dhuni-di-Agg
Sultan Razia
Sant Singh Sekhon (Critic) Sahityarth
Parsidh Punjabi Kavi
Punjabi Kav Shiromani




ODIYA UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Oriya.

Section-A

History of Oriya Language

(i) Origin and development of Oriya Language-Influence of Austric, Dravidian, Perso-Arabic and English on Oriya Language.

(ii) Phonetics and Phonemics : Vowels, Consonants Principles of changes in Oriya sounds.

(iii) Morphology : Morphemes (free, bound compound and complex), derivational and inflectional affixes, case inflection, conjugation of verb.

(iv) Syntax : Kinds of sentences and their transformation, structure of sentences.

(v) Semantics-Different types of change in meaning Euphemism.

(vi) Common errors in spellings, grammatical uses and construction of sentences.

(vii) Regional variations in Oriya Language (Western, Southern and Northern Oriya) and Dialects (Bhatri and Desia)

Section-B

History of Oriya Literature

(i) Historical backgrounds (social, cultural and political) of Oriya Literature of different periods.

(ii) Ancient epics, ornate kavyas and padavalis.

(iii) Typical structural forms of Oriya Literature (Koili, Chautisa, Poi, Chaupadi, Champu).

(iv) Modern trends in poetry, drama short story, novel, essay and literary criticism.

Paper-II

Answers must be written in Oriya.

Critical Study of texts –

The paper will require first hand reading of the text and test the critical ability of the candidate.

Section-A

Poetry

(Ancient)

1. Sãralã Das-Shanti Parva from Mãhãbharãta.

2. Jaganãth Das-Bhãgãbate, XI Skandha-Jadu Avadhuta Sambãda.

(Medieval)

3. Dinãkrushna Dãs-Rasakallola- (Chhãndas-16 & 34)

4. Upendra Bhanja-Lãvanyabati (Chhãndas-1 & 2)

(Modern)

5. Rãdhãnãth Rãy-Chandrabhãgã

6. Mãyãdhãr Mãnasinha-Jeevan Chitã

7. Satchidãnanda Routray-Kabitã-1962

8. Ramãkãnta Ratha-Saptama Ritu.

Section-B

Drama :

9. Manoranjan Dãs-Kãtha-Ghodã

10. Bijay Mishra-Tata Niranjanã

Novel :

11. Fakir Mohan Senãpati-Chhamãna Ãthaguntha

12. Gopinãth Mohanty-Dãnãpãni

Short Story

13. Surendra Mohãnty-Marãlãra Mrityu

14. Manoj Dãs-Laxmira Abhisara

Essay :

15. Chittaranjan Dãs-Taranga O Tadit (First five essays).

16. Chandra Sekhar Rath-Mun Satya-dhãrma Kahuchhi (First five essays)




MARATHI LITERATURE UPSC MAINS SYLLABUS

Paper-I

Answers must be written in Marathi.
Section-A

Language and Folk-Iore
(a) Nature and Functions of Language (with reference to Marathi)
Language as a signifying system : Langue and Parole; Basic functions; Poetic language; Standard Language and dialect; Language variations according to social parameters.
Linguistic features of Marathi in thirteenth century and seventeenth century.

(b) Dialects of Marathi
Ahirani; Varhadi; Dangi

(c) Marathi Grammar
Parts of Speech; Case-system; Prayog-vichar (Voice)

(d) Nature and kinds of Folk-lore (with special reference to Marathi)

Lok-Geet, Lok Katha, Lok Natya
Section-B

History of Literature and Literary Criticism
(a) History of Marathi Literature
1. From beginning to 1818 AD, with special reference to the following : The Mahanubhava writers, the Varkari poets, the Pandit poets, the Shahirs, Bakhar literature.
2. From 1850 to 1990, with special reference to developments in the following major forms : Poetry, Fiction (Novel and Short Story), Drama; and major literary currents and movements, Romantic, Realist, Modernist, Dalit Gramin, Feminist.

(b) Literary Criticism
1. Nature and function of Literature;
2. Evaluation of Literature;
3. Nature, Objectives and Methods of Criticism;
4. Literature, Culture and Society.
   Paper-II

Answers must be written in Marathi.
Textual study of prescribed literary works
The paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate?s critical ability.
Section-A
Prose

(1) ‘Smritishala’
(2) Mahatma Jotiba Phule “Shetkaryacha Asud; ‘Sarvajanik Satyadharma’

(3) S.V. Ketkar ‘Brahmankanya;
(4) P.K. Atre ‘Sashtang Namaskar’

(5) Sharchchandra Muktibodh ‘Jana Hey Volatu Jethe’

(6) Uddhav Shelke ‘Shilan’
(7) Baburao Bagul ‘Jevha Mi Jaat Chorli Hoti’
(8) Gouri Deshpande ‘Ekek Paan Galavaya’
(9) P.I. Sonkamble ‘Athavaninche Pakshi’

Section-B
Poetry

(1) Namadevanchi Abhangawani’
Ed: Inamdar, Relekar, Mirajkar
Modern Book Depot, Pune

(2) ‘Painjan’ Ed : M.N. Adwant Sahitya Prasar Kendra, Nagpur

(3) ‘Damayanti-Swayamvar’ By Raghunath Pandit

(4) ‘Balakvinchi Kavita’ By Balkavi

(5) ‘Vishakha’ By Kusumagraj

(6) ‘Mridgandh’ By Vinda Karandikar

(7) ‘Jahirnama’ By Narayan Surve

(8) ‘Sandhyakalchya Kavita’ By Grace

(9) ‘Ya Sattet Jeev Ramat Nahi’ By Namdev Dhasal